End of the Cold War

Coming in the same year as the fall of the Berlin Wall and the year after Australia’s Bicentennial, the end of the Cold War marked a significant reconfiguration of Australia’s sense of its place in the world. Prime Minister Bob Hawke’s reaction to the Tiananmen Square events was a test of Australia’s views of, and …

Cold War (including decolonisation)

The surge in migration to Australia at the end of World War II increased the already-present language diversity of the country. There was continuity: some prisoners and refugees stayed in Australia after the end of the War, and new groups arrived, such as Dutch refugees from Indonesia’s war of independence. Post-war migration schemes were developed …

WWII

For Australia, involvement in WWII began well before the outbreak of hostilities in Europe. The activities of Chinese groups in Australia such as the KMT and the Chinese Youth League were an important aspect of the way Australia related to the region from 1931 onwards, as was intelligence activity by and about Japan. As with …

WWI

The first shots of World War I were fired in Australia. Australia’s involvement in WWI affected citizens of European origin and those brought under Australian control for the duration of the conflict, such as the German-speaking prisoners of war from New Guinea and a small number of Turks. Europeans who fought in the War, both …

National boundaries

When the colonies came together in 1901, the states had already established strategic and economic claims throughout the Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. Australia’s maritime and land boundaries had to be negotiated before and after Federation through interaction with independent states as well as French, Dutch and German colonies. The immigration acts that made up …

Settlement

Between 1788, when Great Britain established a colony in Port Jackson, and the Federation of the Australian colonies in 1901, settlers brought multiple languages to Australia. Even before that time, French, Dutch and others were mapping out and describing the continent and its region. Some of the languages of the early colonial settlers — Irish- …